Showing posts with label Investment Adviser. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Investment Adviser. Show all posts

Tuesday, August 12, 2014

Does your Investment Adviser Firm Have a Social Media Policy?

Social media such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, or blogs have become popular mechanisms for companies to communicate with the public. Social media allows companies to communicate with clients and prospective clients, market their services, educate the public about their products, and recruit employees. Social media converts a static medium, such as a website, where viewers passively receive content, into a medium where users actively create content. However, this type of interaction poses certain risks for investment advisers and this topic has been a hot button for securities regulators. 

The SEC previously issued a National Examination Risk Alert on investment adviser use of social media. As a registered investment adviser, use of social media by a firm and/or related persons of a firm must comply with applicable provisions of the federal securities laws, including the laws and regulations under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (“Advisers Act”). The Risk Alert noted that the various laws and regulations most affected by social media are anti-fraud provision, including advertising, compliance provisions, and recordkeeping provisions. Advisers Act Rule 206(4)-7 requires firms to create and implement social media policies, and periodically review the policy’s effectiveness. 

Anti-fraud provisions with respect to advertising are probably most affected by the use of social media. All social media use and communications must comply with Rule 206(4)-1. While advertising policies should already be included in a firm’s compliance manual, such policies may not be sufficient enough to address some of the concerns with advertising in the context of social media. Establishing a specific policy to address social media may be prudent.

The area of advertising that has caused the most confusion is the prohibition on the use of testimonials. The SEC has previously defined testimonial to include a statement of a client’s experience with, or endorsement of, any investment adviser. Firms and IARs must ensure that third-party comments on their social media sites do not constitute a testimonial. Furthermore, the SEC vaguely discussed whether the popular “like” function on many social media sites would be deemed a testimonial:

[T]he staff believes that, depending on the facts and circumstances, the use of “social plug-ins” such as the “like” button could be a testimonial under the Advisers Act. Third-party use of the “like” feature on an investment adviser’s social media site could be deemed to be a testimonial if it is an explicit or implicit statement of a client's or clients' experience with an investment adviser or IAR. If, for example, the public is invited to “like” an IAR’s biography posted on a social media site, that election could be viewed as a type of testimonial prohibited by rule 206(4)-1(a)(1).

The types of policies that firms must create concerning advertising and testimonials depend greatly on the function of a specific website. For instance, approving the firm or IARs use of certain websites may turn on whether that website allows for review and approval of third-party comments before such comments are posted on the site or whether the “like” function can be disabled. A firm’s monitoring capabilities and the latitude it wants to provide employees with respect to personal use of social media cannot be ignored either.

The SEC has outlined various factors that should be considered by an investment adviser when evaluating the effective of their compliance program. These factors are:
  • Usage and content guidelines and restrictions on IAR use of social media whether on behalf of the firm or for personal use
  • Mechanisms for approval of social media use and content;
  • Monitoring of social media use by the firm and IARs and the frequency of monitoring;
  • Consideration of the function or risk exposure of specific social media sites;
  • Establishing training and requiring IAR certification;
  • Whether access to social media poses information security risks; and
  • Firm resources that can be dedicated to implementation of social media policies.
There are various considerations firms must take into account when establishing social media policies or evaluating the effectiveness of its existing policies. If your firm needs assistance, the Cosgrove Law Group, LLC can assist with creation or review of such policies.

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Calculating Breach of Fiduciary Duty Damages

According to a variety of authorities including the SEC, the much-debated fiduciary duty for registered investment advisers and their representatives includes a subset of responsibilities[1].  Common sense would, or should tell you that the appropriate damage calculation for a breach of fiduciary duty will be directly dependent upon and vary according to the particular unfulfilled responsibility.  For example, a breach of the fiduciary duty regarding conflicts of interest or honesty, as opposed to mere suitability, will call for out-of-pocket damage compensation if these breaches occurred before any market-losses at issue.  Even in a suitability only arbitration, however, expert witnesses may debate the applicability of out-of-pocket loss calculations as opposed to model portfolio based market-adjusted damage calculations.

It is common in breach of fiduciary duty cases involving trustees to award damages in the amount necessary to make the beneficiary whole. Restatement of Trusts, Second, § 2205, (1957), provides that proof of harm from a breach of fiduciary duty entitles an injured party to whom the duty was owed to damages that: (a) place the injured party in the same position it would have been in but for the fiduciary breach;(b) place the non-breaching party in the position the party was in before the breach; and (c) equal any profit the breaching fiduciary made as a result of committing the breach. See also Restatement (Second) of Torts § 874 (1979) (“One standing in a fiduciary relation with another is subject to liability to the other for harm resulting from a breach of duty imposed by the relation.”).
Delaware law is consistent with this principle. In Hogg v. Walker, 622 A.2d 648, 653 (Del. 1993), the court noted that “where it is necessary to make the successful plaintiff whole” for a breach of fiduciary duty, courts have been willing to allow the plaintiff to recover a portion of trust property or its proceeds along with a money judgment for the remainder. The court in Hogg stated that “[i]t is an established principle of law in Delaware that a surcharge is properly imposed to compensate the trust beneficiaries for monetary losses due to a trustee’s lack of care in the performance of his or her fiduciary duties.” Id. at 654.[2]; see also Weinberger v. UOP, Inc., 457 A.2d 701, 714 (Del. 1983) (stating that in measuring damages for breach of fiduciary duty the court has complete power “to fashion any form of equitable and monetary relief as may be appropriate, including rescissory damages.”); Harman v. Masoneilan Intern., Inc., 442 A.2d 487, 500 (Del. 1982) (finding that “the relief available in equity for tortious conduct by one standing in a fiduciary relation with another is necessarily broad and flexible.”) (citing See Restatement (Second) of Torts, § 874 (1979)).

In O'Malley v. Boris, 742 A.2d 845, 849 (Del. 1999), the court stated that the relationship between a customer and stock broker is that of principal and agent. The court stated a broker must act in the customer’s best interests and must refrain from self-dealing, and that these obligations are at times described “as fiduciary duties of good faith, fair dealing, and loyalty.” (emphasis added) Id. The court further found that fiduciary duties of investment advisors “are comparable to the fiduciary duties of corporate directors, and are limited only by the scope of the agency.” Id.   Bear, Stearns & Co. v. Buehler, 432 F.Supp.2d 1024, 1027 (C.D.Cal. 2000) (finding that reasoning from case addressing breach of fiduciary duty by a trustee was persuasive in case involving investment advisor because, “[l]ike a trustee, an investment advisor may be considered a fiduciary.”).

In sum, it is critical to identify the particular duty at issue in order to arrive at a proper damage calculation.  The broker’s duty of suitability is essentially a limited duty of care akin to the one at play in a negligence matter. The fiduciary duty, however, carries within it an entire penumbra of duties of which portfolio/investment suitability is just one.  If an alleged breach of fiduciary duty is limited to the adviser’s responsibility to recommend or make a suitable investment only, the damage calculations may indeed mirror the broker-dealer damage calculation.  An adviser’s breach of its fiduciary duty beyond the mere standard of investment care, however, requires the finder-of-fact to calculate “make-whole” damages.


[1]Miley v. Openheimer, 637 F.3d 318 (1981) is “the seminal case on damages in a suitability case[.]”
[2] A “surcharge” is relief in the form of monetary compensation for a loss resulting from a trustee’s breach of duty. The Supreme Court in CIGNA Corp. v. Amara, 131 S.Ct. 1866, 1880 (2011), stated that an ERISA fiduciary can be “surcharged” or ordered to pay money damages under the ERISA provision allowing a participant or beneficiary of the plan to obtain “other appropriate equitable relief.” In making this determination, the court stated that “[t]he surcharge remedy extended to a breach of trust committed by a fiduciary encompassing any violation of a duty imposed upon that fiduciary.” The court went on to conclude that “insofar as an award of make-whole relief is concerned, the fact that the defendant in this case, . . . , is analogous to a trustee makes a critical difference.”

Sunday, March 2, 2014

Is your RIA's Code of Ethics Adequate?

Being a fiduciary to clients means acting in the client’s best interest and putting their interest before yours and others. Sometimes knowing what is in the client’s best interest can get foggy so establishing certain guidelines can help protect you, your client, and your representatives. 

In accordance with Rule 204A-1 of the Investment Advisors Act of 1940, RIA’s registered with the SEC are required to maintain a written code of ethics that outline the fiduciary duties and standards of conduct of the RIA and its representatives. State registered RIA’s may also be required to develop a code of ethics consistent with state regulations. 

It’s important to keep in mind that in creating a code of ethics, the SEC and various state regulations set minimum requirements.  The following items are required in an RIA’s code of ethics under Rule 204A-1:
  • A standard of business conduct which reflects the fiduciary obligations to clients;  
  • Provisions requiring all advisers’ and supervised persons’ compliance with applicable federal securities laws;
  • Protection of material non-public information of both the adviser’s securities recommendations, and client securities holdings and transactions;
  • Periodic reporting and reviewing of access persons’ personal securities transactions and holdings;
  • Advisor’s approval before an access person can invest in an IPO or private placement;
  • Duty to report violations of the code of ethics;
  •  A written acknowledgment that all supervised persons received the code of ethics; and
  • Recordkeeping provisions. 
RIAs often set higher standards that work to reinforce the values or business practices of the company.  Rule 204A-1 does not require detailed measures to be included into every code because of the vast differences among advisory firms.  However, the SEC has offered guidance and recommendations on additional best practices that advisors should consider incorporating into its code of ethics.  The following list contains additional safeguards that are commonly implemented by other advisers:
  • Prior written approval before access persons can place a personal securities transaction (“pre-clearance”);
  • Maintenance of lists of issuers of securities that the advisory firm is analyzing or recommending for client transactions, and prohibitions on personal trading in securities of those issuers;
  • Maintenance of “restricted lists” of issuers about which the advisory firm has inside information, and prohibitions on any trading (personal or for clients) in securities of those issuers; 
  • “Blackout periods” when client securities trades are being placed or recommendations are being made and access persons are not permitted to place personal securities transactions.
  • Reminders that investment opportunities must be offered first to clients before the adviser or its employees may act on them, and procedures to implement this principle.
  • Prohibitions or restrictions on “short-swing” trading and market timing.
  • Requirements to trade only through certain brokers, or limitations on the number of brokerage accounts permitted;
  • Requirements to provide the adviser with duplicate trade confirmations and account statements; and
  • Procedures for assigning new securities analyses to employees whose personal holdings do not present apparent conflicts of interest.
Another issue that may be important to include in your code of ethics is provisions concerning gifts and entertainment since giving or receiving gifts between a client and advisor may create the appearance of impropriety.  Gift and entertainment provisions usually contain reporting requirements and a prohibition of accepting gifts over de minimus values, such as $100.

While the above requirements and recommendations generally encompass an advisor’s fiduciary duty as it relates to conflicts of interests, advisors have additional fiduciary duties to clients that should be memorialized in a code of ethics as well.  For example, and what might appear obvious to some, advisors cannot defraud or engage in manipulative practices with a client in any way.  Advisors also have a duty to have a reasonable, independent basis for the investment advice provided to a client and to ensure that investment advice meets the client’s individual objectives, needs, and circumstances.  Advisors are also expected to stay abreast of market conditions.  Clients should be provided with all material information related to their investments or investment strategy and should be adequately informed of the risks associated with those investments.  The depth of the explanation of those risks or strategy depends on the client’s level education and experience.     

The buck doesn’t stop with establishing a written code of ethics, however.  Implementation and enforcement of your code of ethics are just as crucial.  This also includes educating your representatives.  Rule 204A-1 does not mandate specific training procedures but ensuring that your representatives understand their obligations and their fiduciary duties is imperative.  Thus, periodic training with new and existing employees is not only in your best interest, but also the interest of your employees and clients.  Finally, you should annually review your code of ethics to determine if there are any areas of deficiency or whether changes need to be made.

The Syndicate can assist with your firm in the following ways: (1) drafting or establishing a code of ethics; (2) reviewing your current code to assure it complies with applicable state or federal laws; (3) implementing training programs; and (4) analyzing your firm’s implementation procedures to ensure compliance with the codes provisions.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Missouri Securities Division Cancels the Registration of Missing Investment Adviser Rep


In late 2013, Missouri Commissioner of Securities ordered the cancellation of Joseph Jackson and J. Andrew Jackson & Co. LLC’s registration.  The company was a Registered Investment Adviser with Jackson registered as its investment adviser representative.  

According to the Missouri Order, in July 2012, a Missouri Resident (“MR”) opened an account with Interactive Brokers LLC, a Missouri registered broker-dealer, through J. Andrew Jackson & Co., LLC.  Jackson was listed as the representative of record on the account.  By August, 2012, Jackson, acting as the registered representative on the account, had lost over $83,000 in MR’s account due to his purchasing of options in MR’s account.  Jackson never discussed purchasing options with MR and MR had no knowledge about how options work.   Jackson told MR that he was attempting to “hit a home-run” with the purchases.  In September 2012, Jackson repaid MR $10,000 and agreed to pay MR $5,000 every other week until the losses were recouped.  MR has been unable to contact Jackson since September 21, 2012.  Jackson is believed to have other Missouri clients.    

Since June of 2013, investigators of the Missouri Securities Division made several attempts to contact Jackson at his last known addresses and phone numbers to no avail.  Thus, pursuant to Section 409.4-408(e) of the Missouri Securities Act,

(e) If the commissioner determines that a registrant or applicant for registration is no longer in existence or has ceased to act as a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, or investment adviser representative, or is the subject of an adjudication of incapacity or is subject to the control of a committee, conservator, or guardian, or cannot reasonably be located, a rule adopted or order issued under this act may require the registration be canceled or terminated or the application denied.

Therefore, in the interest of investors and because all means of contacting Jackson had been exhausted, the Commissioner ordered the cancellation of the registrations of both Jackson and J. Andrew Jackson & Co. LLC. 

It remains to be seen whether Jackson will resurface.  If that happens, we will likely see another Enforcement Action concerning his alleged neglect and mishandling of client accounts. 

While this advice is probably obvious to most of our readers, investment adviser reps should always maintain contact with their clients.  Finally, if you receive an inquiry from a State Securities Department or other related agency, contact the attorneys at Cosgrove Law Group, LLC immediately

Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Investment Adviser Fiduciary Duty Standard Requires Reasonable Basis for Client Recommendation

The Securities and Exchange Commission regulates investment advisers under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (the “Act”). Perhaps the most significant provision of the Act is Section 206, which prohibits advisers from defrauding their clients. The Supreme Court has interpreted this provision as imposing on advisers a fiduciary obligation to their clients. See Transamerica Mortgage Advisors, Inc. (TAMA) v. Lewis, 444 U.S. 11, 17 (1979) (“[T]he Act’s legislative history leaves no doubt that Congress intended to impose enforceable fiduciary obligations.”).

The federal fiduciary standard requires that an investment adviser act in the “best interest” of its advisory client. Belmont v. MB Inv. Partners, Inc., 708 F.3d 470, 503 (3d Cir. 2013) (citing SEC v. Tambone, 550 F.3d 106, 146 (1st Cir.2008) (“[15 U.S.C. § 80b–6] imposes a fiduciary duty on investment advisers to act at all times in the best interest of the fund and its investors.”). Under a “best interest” test, an adviser may benefit from a transaction with or by a client, but the details of the transaction must be fully disclosed. See SEC v. Capital Gains Research Bureau, 375 U.S. 180, 191-92 (1963) (stating that Advisers Act was meant to “eliminate, or at least to expose, all conflicts of interest which might incline as investment adviser–consciously or unconsciously–to render advice which was not disinterested”).

A number of obligations to clients flow from the fiduciary duty imposed by the Act, including the duty to fully disclose any material conflicts the adviser has with its clients, to seek best execution for client transactions, to provide only suitable investment advice, and to have a reasonable basis for client recommendations. See Registration Under the Advisers Act of Certain Hedge Fund Advisers, SEC Release No. IA-2333; Status of Investment Advisory Programs under the Investment Company Act of 1940, SEC Release No. IA-1623.

As noted by the Third Circuit in Belmont, even when a private litigant brings a cause of action for common law breach of fiduciary duty “the evolution of duties governing investment advisers as fiduciaries appears to have been shaped exclusively by the Advisers Act and federal common law.” 708 F.3d at 500-01. The Belmont court noted that one might reasonably wonder why the cause of action is presented as springing from state law if one looks to federal law for the statement of the duty and the standard to which investment advisers are to be held. 708 F.3d at 502. However, the court found that the answer was straightforward: no federal cause of action is permitted. Id. The court found that while “[t]hat reality ought to call into serious question whether a limitation in federal law can be circumvented simply by hanging the label ‘state law’ on an otherwise forbidden federal claim, that is the labeling game that has been played in this corner of the securities field, and the confusion it engenders may explain why there has been little development in either state or federal law on the applicable standards.” Id.

Based on the foregoing, a common law breach of fiduciary duty claim can in all likelihood be based on an investment adviser’s failure to have a “reasonable basis” for making a client recommendation. The question then becomes what constitutes a “reasonable basis” in the context of making such recommendations? This is not an issue that has been faced by many courts in the context of private causes of action brought by clients against investment advisers. For example, no Missouri case has addressed the issue.

However, in other situations where a reasonableness standard is employed, Missouri courts utilize an objective standard. See Graham v. McGrath, 243 S.W.3d 459, 463 (Mo. Ct. App. 2007) (noting that when damages are capable of ascertainment for purposes of statutes of limitations, Missouri utilizes an objective reasonable person standard); Robin Farms, Inc. v. Bartholome, 989 S.W.2d 238, 247 (Mo. Ct. App. 1999) (noting that the test for determining disqualification of a judge based on bias is whether a reasonable person would have factual grounds to doubt the impartiality of the court, “which is an objective standard[.].”).

As such, in Missouri and other jurisdictions that utilize the objective standard for reasonableness in other situations, the determination of whether an investment adviser had a “reasonable basis” for making a particular recommendation will likely be measured by an objective standard. This means that the fact finder will have to determine whether a reasonable person in the investment adviser’s circumstances might have made the same recommendation as the investment adviser, and need not consider what the adviser may have honestly -- but perhaps mistakenly -- believed.

Thursday, June 28, 2012

Class Arbitration: Are Investment Advisers Representatives Excluded?


Investment Adviser agreements typically contain provisions which require all disputes between the Registered Investment Adviser (“RIA”) and Investment Adviser Representative (“IAR”) to be determined in a final and binding arbitration.  These agreements also preclude class claims from being brought to arbitration.  In effect, RIAs have thereby evaded being the subject of class actions brought by IARs, at least for now. 

At the beginning of the year, the National Labor Relations Board (“NLRB”) decided a case which outlaws contract provisions in which the employer conditions employment upon signing an agreement that precludes employees from filing joint, class, or collective claims in any forum.  However, the claims must address issues such as wages, hours, or other working conditions. 

D.R. Horton v. Michael Cuda involved an employment contract where the employee was required to submit all claims to arbitration.  The agreement also prevented employees from consolidating or bringing class claims.  The NLRB determined that these agreements prohibit the exercise of substantive rights that are protected under Section 7 of the National Labor Relations Act (“NLRA”).  The NLRB’s decision specifically outlines certain limitations to its holding.  In particular, the decision is only applicable to “employees” as defined in the NLRA.  This definition specifically excludes independent contractors.

It should be noted that the US Supreme Court recently ruled in AT&T Mobility LLC v. Conception that the Federal Arbitrations Act (“FAA”) permits companies to require customers to arbitrate their complaints individually, precluding class action claims.  D.R. Horton differs in that it involved employee class actions, which is protected by statute, versus customer or consumer class actions.  However, since D.R. Horton has been appealed to the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals, it will be interesting to see the outcome, and whether or not the Supreme Court will grant certiorari.  My guess is that it will.   

That being said, the hurdle for IARs is that they are often classified as “independent contractors” rather than employees.  Not only is this usually set forth in their investment advisor agreements, but the type of relationship between the employer and the IAR has some characteristics of an independent contractor.  However, they also have employer-employee characteristics that could be crucial in determining the type of employment relationship. 

There are various factors that determine whether one is considered an employee versus an independent contractor.  These factors include but are not limited to the following: (1) the level of control the employer has over the work performed by the individual; (2) whether the employer or worker furnishes the tools, materials, supplies, or equipment needed to perform the job; (3) whether the worker provides services for more than one firm or company at a time; (4) whether the worker can realize a profit or loss as a result of his services; (5) whether the employer set the work schedule; and (6) whether the employer hires, supervises, or pays assistants of the worker.

Perhaps one of the more determinative factors in defining an employment relationship is the level of control and supervision the employer has over an individual.  By design, RIAs are required to supervise the conduct and activities of any IAR that represents it, whether the IAR is an employee or an individual that provides investment advice on behalf of the RIA.  An RIA’s legal duty to supervise its IARs emanates from a number of sources.  For instance, Section 203(e)(6) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 permits the SEC to take action against an RIA for failing to supervise its IARs.  Pursuant to SEC Rule 206(4)-7 under the Advisers Act, RIAs are required to adopt policies and procedures that are reasonably designed to prevent violations of securities laws by the adviser and its supervised persons.   Furthermore, SEC Rule 204A-1 requires RIAs to adopt a code of ethics which sets forth the standard of business conduct to be exhibited by IARs. 

Generally, investment advisory agreements authorize RIAs to monitor and evaluate the IAR and subject the IAR to the supervision of the adviser.  Moreover, the duty to supervise an IAR may also stem from the fiduciary duty the RIA owes to its clients.  This supervisory duty and level of control is often implemented with periodic or annual compliance audits of each IAR.  Despite this level of control, the IAR is often contractually defined as an independent contractor.   

Therefore, as it stands, IARs could face a substantial but perhaps surmountable hurdle in bringing class arbitration claims if the investment advisor agreement defines the representative as an independent contract and precludes class actions.  Since the NLRA definition of employee precludes traditional independent contractors, there may be no statutory protection granted to some IARs.