Wednesday, January 9, 2019


Are you a financial adviser who has been terminated unfairly?  Well, if you are, you are not alone.  The attorneys at Cosgrove Law Group, LLC have represented advisers all over the country who have fallen prey to a system very unique to the financial services industry – the internet publication of involuntary termination justifications via the Form U-5.  And while the regulators thought this system would be a good thing for investors, it has proven to be a devastating system for many innocent advisers.  We refer to it as “the weaponization of the U-5.”

You will not obtain a new position with a Broker-Dealer or hybrid until your U-5 is filed.  And you probably will not get hired if it contains a negative narrative or one of the answers to question #7 (a) – (f) is marked in the affirmative.  Nor will your home state or FINRA register you until they are done investigating the purported reasons for termination.  If you are in this horrible situation, call us for help today.

Tuesday, January 8, 2019

Purchasers of 1st Global Capital Finance Securities in Missouri May Be Able to Recover from Their Brokers

On August 23, 2018, the U.S. Securities andExchange Commission (“SEC”) filed a complaint for injunctive and other relief against 1 Global Capital, LLC (“1st Global Capital”) in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida alleging, among other things, that 1st Global Capital “fraudulently raised more than $287 million from more than 3,400 investors.” And as 1st Global Capital filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, it’s unlikely the victims of this fraud will recover more than a fraction of their money from 1st Global Finance. But all may not be lost if you are such a victim of this fraud and if you purchased your investment in Missouri.  Another avenue of recovery may be against the sales agents that brokered these investments to you in Missouri on behalf of 1st Global Capital.

1st Global Capital sourced its capital through a “network of barred brokers, registered and unregistered investment advisers, and other sales agents – to whom they paid millions in commissions – to offer and sell unregistered securities to investors in no fewer than 25 states” according the complaint filed by the SEC. Missouri was one of those states. And, these brokers, investment advisers and sales agents who brokered these sales in Missouri may be liable to these investors in Missouri for the following reasons:

First, these investments in the forms of a “9-month Promissory Note,” “Memorandum of Indebtedness” or “Loan Agreement” from 1st Global Capital constitute “securities” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. § 77b(a)(1)] (the “Securities Act”).  As such, they were required to be registered with the SEC pursuant to the Securities Act or exempted from registration therefrom. No such registration statement was filed and no exemption from registration existed for the 1st Global Capital securities. So, under federal and state law, including the Securities Act, you may be able to bring a private right of action against the sellers of these securities for the recovery of your investment.

Second, because the brokers, investment advisers and sales agents who brokered these securities in Missouri are governed by the rulings of the Eighth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, the definition of what constitutes a “seller” of securities under the Securities Act is not limited to the person who actually passes title of the securities to the purchaser. This definition has been broadened to include the intermediary who facilitated the sale of the security to the purchaser, if that intermediary was made aware of questionable circumstances surrounding the transaction and “was uniquely positioned to ask relevant questions, acquire additional information, or disclose his findings” to the purchaser. Wasson v. SEC, 558 F.2d 879, 886 (8th Cir. 1977). Moreover, a different panel of the Eighth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals adopted the “substantial factor” test, in which a person “whose participation in the buy-sell transaction [was] a ‘substantial factor’ in causing the transaction to take place” was held to be a seller under the Securities Act. Stokes v. Lokken, 644 F. 2d 779, 785 (8th Cir. 1981).

If you purchased 1st Global Capital securities in Missouri, then there are laws that could provide you with the right to recover from the broker, investment adviser or sales agent who brokered that investment to you, including the Securities Act, the Missouri Uniform Securities Act, §§409.1.1, et seq., RSMo. (2016), and the Missouri common law. These laws could entitle you to recover the money paid for the securities, with interests and costs, and in some cases your reasonable attorneys’ fees and punitive damages.

There are many decisions you need to make such as what laws give you the best chance of recovering your investment, what relief should you should seek, and whether to file your lawsuit in federal or Missouri state court. If you need assistance, you may wish to consult with experienced counsel at CosgroveLaw Group, LLC.

Author: Brian St. James

Thursday, January 3, 2019

SEC Cracking Down on Share Class Selection: High Standards and High Stakes

Last February the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") announced their Share Class Selection Disclosure Initiative. This initiative is to prevent Investment Advisers from having their clients purchase shares with higher 12b-1 fees when cheaper ones are available. 12b-1 fees are paid by shareholders for the marketing, advertising, mailing of fund literature and prospectuses to clients, and paying the brokers.

Recently, the SEC settled with American Portfolio Advisers to pay $895,353 in disgorgement and prejudgment interest and a civil penalty of $250,000 due to inadequate client disclaimers regarding conflict of interests with 12b-1 fees.

In their Initiative Announcement, the SEC defined Investment Advisers receiving 12b-1 fees to mean (1) directly receiving fees, (2) a supervised person receiving fees, or (3) an affiliated broker dealer receiving fees. The SEC went on to state a proper disclosure does two things: it describes the conflict of interest in (1) making investment decisions in light of receipt of 12b-1 fees, and (2) selecting more expensive 12b-1 fee paying shares when lower cost shares are available for the same fund.

The initiative notes that disclosing that investment advisers “may” receive a 12b-1 fee and that there “may” be a conflict of interest was not enough. If the adviser is in fact receiving a 12b-1 fee they must say so and if the client is eligible for a lower cost share the adviser must inform them.

This duty stems from Section 206(2) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 ("Advisers Act"). Interpreted in SEC v. Capital Gains ResearchBureau, Inc., 375 U.S. 180, 194 (1963) to impose a financial duty on Investment Advisers to disclose to its clients all conflicts of interest which might incline an investment adviser consciously or unconsciously to render advice that is not disinterested.

These are high-standards and high-stakes for Registered Investment Advisers and for the Investment Advisers themselves. If you questions related to these standards or other SEC initiatives or regulatory standards, please call us at Cosgrove Law Group, LLC.

Tuesday, November 6, 2018


It’s what we do here at Cosgrove Law Group, LLC.

              Believe it or not, there are instances in which a broker-dealer seeks out pre-textual reasons for a termination.  Some reasons are more frivolous than others.  For many advisers, an involuntary termination is nothing more than the first chapter of a multi-chapter nightmare.

            The broker-dealer has 30 days from the date of termination to file the U-5, a disclosure to FINRA that modifies the adviser’s U-4 with information regarding the termination.  The U-5 disclosure includes both narratives and the checking of “yes” or “no” boxes.  Notably, which boxes are checked or not will impact what, if any, information is added to the publicly accessible BrokerCheck Report.

            Once the U-5 is filed, and sometimes before that, FINRA and state regulators will make inquiry as to the disclosure.  Before that, however, potential employers will want to know what is, or will be, on the U-5.  During this early post-termination window, while the adviser is trying to get hired and registered, it is common for the former broker-dealer’s agents to solicit the departing adviser’s clients.  Sadly, these solicitations frequently cross the line between fair competition and tortious interference/defamation.

            It should be obvious from this brief summary that it is critical to retain counsel as soon as you begin to even sense that things are going south with your current broker-dealer.  Sometimes the legal department of the broker-dealer will step in and correct its clients’ improper behavior.  Moreover, there are times when the U-5 language initially intended can be modified to be, while still accurate, less prejudicial or inflammatory in nature.  If all else fails, filing an arbitration claim for compensatory and punitive damages and an expungement is a final avenue of recourse.  Please do not try to navigate these treacherous waters by yourself.

The attorneys of Cosgrove Law Group, LLC represent investment advisors, brokers, and other associated persons nationwide in securities employment and regulatory matters, including U-5 defamation matters. Our attorneys also practice in a variety of other areas of law.  If you have a legal matter or concern, please give us a call and speak directly with one of our experienced professionals.

Monday, September 24, 2018

Overview of FINRA’s Form U5 Reporting Requirements

FINRA Form U5, called the “Uniform Termination Notice for Securities Industry Regulation” is submitted to FINRA when a registered representative is terminated from a firm. A brief overview of Form U5 is contained below:

Currently, there are three different types of Form U5 filings: 1) a full Form U5; 2) a partial Form U5; and 3) amended Form U5. The full Form U5 is utilized when the individual terminates with the firm, while a partial Form U5 is utilized when the individual is terminated from certain jurisdictions or self-regulatory organizations. An amendment to Form U5 is used, for example, when the basis of the individual’s termination has been changed.

Information disclosed on Form U5 can have far reaching effects on financial advisors and stockbrokers because it may be made public through FINRA BrokerCheck. Here’s a closer look at the information FINRA is looking for in the submission of the Form 5:

In Question 7A, FINRA requires that the firm identify if the individual is subject of an investigation by a government body or self-regulatory organization having jurisdiction over investment-related business. Question 7B requires the firm to indicate whether the terminated individual has been subject of an internal review for wrongful taking of property, fraud or violating investment-related statutes, regulations, rules or industry standards of conduct. Firms must answer Question 7C in situations where the individual was charged or convicted of a felony while the individual was associated with the firm.

Question 7D of Form U5 concerns the disclosure of regulatory actions. Particularly, the firm is obligated to confirm whether the individual, when associated with the firm, had been subject of a self-regulatory organization or foreign government disciplinary action having jurisdiction over investment-related business. Disclosure is not mandated; however, when the incident was deemed a minor rule violation pursuant to a plan which the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has authorized.

FINRA’s interpretative guidance further reveals that firms are not required to monitor the associated person to make sure that Questions 7C and 7D are answered correctly. FINRA calls for disclosure to be made by the firm when the firm has been expressly notified about the incident. In other words, disclosure is warranted if an agency contacts the firm’s staff concerning the incident, and the staff member knows, or should know, of the requirement to report the incident on Form U5.

FINRA is also concerned about whether the terminated individual has been the subject of formal disputes. Specifically, the firm is required to indicate whether, during the time that the individual was associated with the firm, the individual had been named in, or the subject of, certain investment-related, consumer-initiated arbitration or civil actions. Reportable actions include those that are pending, resulted in an award or judgment against the individual, or settled for $15,000.00 or more after May 18, 2009. Firms are even obligated to report certain instances when a customer files a complaint concerning the individual’s activities but did not pursue a more formal action.

In addition, FINRA requires the firm to disclose instances where the individual has been terminated after allegations of misconduct arose. Specifically, FINRA requires that the firms disclose when the individual has been discharged, permitted to resign, or even voluntarily resigned from the firm after allegations surfaced accusing the individual of (1) violating investment-related statutes, regulations, rules or industry standards of conduct; or (2) fraud or wrongful taking of property; or (3) failure to supervise in connection with investment-related statutes, regulations, rules or industry standards of conduct.

Form U5 is required to be submitted within 30 days of the registered representative’s termination. Firms also have an obligation to keep the Form U5 current; there is no expiration date on the firm’s duty to amend the Form U5 to address incompletions or inaccuracies.

Cosgrove Law Group, LLC has represented many advisers around the nation in situations where a broker-dealer reported false and defamatory information on a Form U5, helping them obtain settlements and awards ranging from $100,000.00 to $3,500,000.00. If you feel that you have been a victim to Form U5 defamation, call Cosgrove Law Group and speak to our experienced counsel today.

The attorneys of Cosgrove Law Group, LLC represent investment advisors, brokers, and other associated persons nationwide in securities employment and regulatory matters, including U-5 defamation matters. Our attorneys also practice in a variety of other areas of law.  If you have a legal matter or concern, please give us a call and speak directly with one of our experienced professionals.

Friday, September 21, 2018

A Closer Look At Regulatory Action Disclosures On Form U4

Financial advisors who become registered with a Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) member firm should be knowledgeable about Form U4, as it addresses a broad spectrum of historical events that are required to be reported to FINRA. FINRA has offered some interpretative guidance, some of which is explained below, as it relates to Form U4 actions.

Question 14 of FINRA Form U4 concerns criminal disclosures, regulatory action disclosures, civil judicial disclosures, customer complaints, arbitrations, and civil litigation. To begin with, and perhaps to no surprise, an individual who has been charged or convicted of a felony is required to disclosure that information on Question 14A. Even, an individual who has even been pardoned for a crime must report the conviction, according to FINRA’s interpretive guidance.

Financial advisors should take note that misdemeanors are also required to be reported on Form U4 in certain cases. For example, an individual who has been charged or convicted of a misdemeanor involving investments, fraudulent conduct, or wrongful taking of property would be required to disclose those incident(s).

Question 14C prompts individuals to state whether they have been found to have committed certain types of misconduct by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) including: making false statements or omissions; committing a violation of investment-related statues or regulations; and causing a business to have its authorization to do business revoked or suspended.

individuals are additionally required to report on Question 14C whether they have been found by the SEC or the CFTC to have willfully violated Securities Act of 1933, Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Investment Company Act of 1940, Investment Advisers Act of 1940, Commodity Exchange Act, or Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (MSRB) rules. Disclosure is also mandated when the individual has been found to have aided and abetted a person’s violative activities, or failed to supervise another person responsible for committing violations in the securities industry.

Similarly, Question 14(E) requires that individuals report if they have been found by a self-regulatory organization to have made false statements or omissions, violated SEC rules; or caused an investment-related business to lose authorizations to conduct securities business. Any suspensions or expulsions from those self-regulatory organizations are required to be reported. Plus, disclosure is necessitated when there have been any findings of federal securities law violations committed by the individual, or someone who the individual supervised or aided.

FINRA confirms in Question 14G that individuals are required to disclose to FINRA when they are notified that they have become subject of a regulatory complaint or proceeding brought on by the SEC, CFTC, other federal agencies, state securities commissioners and self-regulatory organizations. Investigations, according to FINRA, are signaled by the issuance of a Wells Notice to the individual or the individual being notified from FINRA staff that formal disciplinary action has been recommended by FINRA. However, not all things mean an investigation to FINRA. For example, requests for information, regulatory inquiries and subpoenas, per se, apparently do not constitute investigations.

FINRA’s guidelines further reveal that when an individual has been subject to an order from a foreign regulatory agency that is later vacated, the individual generally has to report the order because of the advisor’s obligation to report the original findings. Exceptions exist, according to FINRA’s guidelines, where the regulatory agency not only vacates the order, but confirms an intent to make that order have retroactive effect.

Individuals who are the subject of a FINRA Acceptance, Waiver and Consent are also required to disclose this information so long as the AWC concerns findings as to the individual’s misconduct identified in Question 14(E). There are some situations; however, where violations of the rules do not have to be reported, including some “minor rule violations” where the fine is no more than $2,500.00 and the individual does not contest the fine.

Financial advisors and stockbrokers often wonder how to go about making disclosures concerning negative events. If you are in a situation that mandates disclosure, such as a pending regulatory investigation, it is best to consult with an attorney. If you need assistance, you may wish to consult with the experienced counsel at Cosgrove Law Group.

The attorneys of Cosgrove Law Group, LLC represent investment advisors, brokers, and other associated persons nationwide in securities employment and regulatory matters, including U-5 defamation matters. Our attorneys also practice in a variety of other areas of law.  If you have a legal matter or concern, please give us a call and speak directly with one of our experienced professionals.

Thursday, September 20, 2018

SEC Affirms FINRA’s Findings of EKN Stockbroker’s Form U4 Violations

The Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) affirmed a Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) Decision in which EKN Financial Services Inc. stockbroker, Louis Ottimo, was assessed a $25,000.00 fine and two-year suspension in all capacities pursuant to findings that he willfully failed to accurately and timely update his Uniform Application for Securities Industry Registration or Transfer (“Form U4”) to reflect judgments, unsatisfied tax liens, and a bankruptcy filing. (In the Matter of the Application of Louis Ottimo, Admin. Proc. File No. 3-17930 (June 28, 2018).

Back on August 22, 2013, FINRA’s Department of Enforcement filed a Complaint against Ottimo alleging that he, inter alia, violated FINRA Rules 2010, 1122, NASD IM-1000-1, and Article V, Section 2(c) of FINRA’s By-Laws by deliberately failing to disclose facts on his Form U4. An Extended Hearing Panel found Ottimo to have committed the violations, and assessed a $25,000.00 fine and two-year suspension; however, sanctions were not imposed in light of Ottimo being barred by the Extended Hearing Panel for a more serious act: committing securities fraud in violation of Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and SEC Rule 10b-5.

On appeal, the National Adjudicatory Council affirmed the Extended Hearing Panel’s findings of Ottimo’s Form U4 violations. Ottimo subsequently appealed to the SEC, who sustained FINRA’s findings with respect to Ottimo’s Form U4 violations.

Ottimo became registered with EKN Financial Services Inc. on March 9, 2009. Because he was registering with a FINRA member firm, Ottimo was obligated to submit a Form U4. Ottimo, like any associated person, was obligated by FINRA rules to keep his Form U4 current at all times. Under FINRA By-Laws Article V, Section 2(c), this meant that Ottimo was required to update his Form U4 within thirty days of learning facts or circumstances giving rise to the need to amend the form.

Question 14.M on the Form U4 prompted Ottimo to disclose whether he had any liens or judgments that were unsatisfied, and question 14.K prompted Ottimo to disclose whether he, or any organization that he controlled, filed a bankruptcy petition within the prior ten year period. The findings stated that after Ottimo commenced employment with EKN Financial Services Inc., he continually neglected to accurately and timely report information on his Form U4 concerning a bankruptcy filing, six unsatisfied civil judgments and seven unsatisfied liens.

Specifically, the findings stated that Ottimo failed to report five of the tax liens issued from January 2010 to April 2010 on his Form U4 until September 2010. In addition, a November 2010 tax lien was not reported by Ottimo on his Form U4 until June 2011, and a June 2011 tax lien was not reported until April of 2012. Evidently, Ottimo’s reporting of the liens occurred well after FINRA’s thirty day time limit for reporting. Critically, Ottimo revealed in a FINRA hearing that he was cognizant about FINRA’s requirements – but he obviously disregarded them.

Further, from March 2008 to April 2010, a total of six civil judgments had been entered against Ottimo, where Ottimo failed to accurately and timely report those judgements. One of the judgments against Ottimo on June 4, 2009 had been vacated on September 9, 2009. Despite Ottimo having amended his Form U4 on four occasions between June 2009 and August 2009, he failed to report that unsatisfied judgment. Notwithstanding the judgement being vacated, Ottimo was still subject to the reporting requirement.

In addition, Ottimo failed to report a bankruptcy petition for a company he founded and which he served as president, Wheatley Capital Corporation. The findings stated that Wheatley filed for bankruptcy on April 27, 2010, and the bankruptcy petition had been signed and submitted by Ottimo. Ottimo evidently neglected to make the bankruptcy known on his Form U4 until April 19, 2002.

In the Opinion, the SEC confirmed FINRA’s findings that Ottimo’s failure to make timely disclosures of liens, civil judgments and a bankruptcy was violative of FINRA By-Laws Article V, Section 2(c). SEC also found that by way of Ottimo’s Form U4 being misleading and inaccurate, he violated FINRA Rules 1122 and NASD IM-1000-1. And as a consequence of violating FINRA Rules 1122 and NASD IM-1000-1, the SEC confirmed that Ottimo violated FINRA Rule 2010.

Moreover, the SEC concluded that Ottimo was subject to a statutory disqualification because of his (1) willful conduct in neglecting to update his Form U4, and (2) material omissions relating to his Form U4. The SEC turned to Securities Exchange Act Section 3(a)(39)(F), which provides a basis for statutory disqualification when a FINRA member intentionally omits a material fact in applying for association with a member.  Finally, the SEC found Ottimo’s conduct willful given Ottimo’s knowledge of his disclosure obligations and the significance of that information (six unsatisfied civil judgements that totaled more than $440,000.00 and unsatisfied tax liens that totaled more than $260,000.00) to investors, employers and regulators.

Interestingly enough, the SEC reversed a part of FINRA’s fraud findings, and in so doing, set aside the barring of Ottimo and remanded the matter to FINRA to determine what sanctions it deems appropriate. The SEC invited FINRA to reconsider its decision not to impose sanctions against Ottimo for his willful Form U4 violations.

Financial advisors and stockbrokers often question whether to make disclosures concerning negative events. If you are in one of those situations, it is best to be careful versus taking a risk that could possibly end your career in the securities industry. If you need assistance with your Form U4 matter, call (314) 563-2490 today to consult with the experienced counsel at Cosgrove Law Group.

The attorneys of Cosgrove Law Group, LLC represent investment advisors, brokers, and other associated persons nationwide in securities employment and regulatory matters, including U-5 defamation matters. Our attorneys also practice in a variety of other areas of law.  If you have a legal matter or concern, please give us a call and speak directly with one of our experienced professionals.