Since the crash of 2008, words like “bailout” and “stimulus” have swirled around the financial and housing markets across the country. You may even be more familiar with specific programs like TARP or CAP. The bailout and stimulus programs were extraordinary acts of Congress enacted swiftly to react to the dire circumstances facing the nation at the end of 2008. But the bottom line is that the federal government pumped huge sums of money into the markets very rapidly in an effort to stabilize the marketplace. Of course in doing so, the Government opened itself up to potential fraudsters.
Special Inspector General Neil Barfosky testified to this effect before the House Ways and Means Committee on Oversight:
“We stand at the precipice of the largest infusion of Government funds over the shortest period of time in our Nation’s history. If by percentage, some of the estimates of fraud in recent government programs apply to the TARP programs, we are looking at the potential exposure of hundreds of billions of dollars in taxpayer money lost to fraud.”
As such, qui tam whistleblowers, acting under the Federal False Claims Act, are playing a critical role exposing fraud in the government programs created under these Bills.
This is a three part series that will analyze the legislation that sets the foundation for the bailout and provides the means for private litigants to come forward and provide an in-depth assessment setting forth the statutory provisions, processes and procedures that whistleblowers must comply with when disclosing information regarding the misuse of TARP and other stimulus funds. This first article looks at the legislation which created a qui tam lawsuit, the Federal False Claims Act.
The Federal False Claims Act
The False Claims Act (“FCA”), 31 U.S.C. §§ 3729-3733, was originally enacted in 1863 in response to contractors defrauding the United States Government by selling unfit supplies to both the Confederate and Union armies. It has since been revered as the single-most effective tool for detecting fraud against the U.S. Government by allowing private citizens to bring suit on behalf of the Government and share in the recovery. (Since 1986, claims brought under the FCA have recovered $28 billion).
The FCA provides that any person who knowingly submits or causes to be submitted a false or fraudulent claim to the Government for payment or approval is liable for a civil penalty of not less than $5,500 and not more than $11,000 for each such claim submitted or paid, plus three times the amount of the damages sustained by the Government. 31 U.S.C. § 3729(a); 12 C.F.R. § 85.3(a)(9).
More specifically, liability under the FCA attaches when a person:
• “Knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, to an officer or employee of the United States Government or a member of the Armed Forces of the United States a false or fraudulent claim for payment or approval...” 31 U.S.C. §3729(a)(1);
• “Knowingly makes, uses, or causes to be made or used, a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim...” 31 U.S.C. §3729(a)(2), as amended by, The Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009 (Pub. L. No. 111-21, §§ 4(a)(a) and 4(f)); or
• “Knowingly makes, uses, or causes to be made or used, a false record or statement to conceal, avoid, or decrease an obligation to pay or transmit money or property to Government.” 31 U.S.C. § 3729(a)(7).
The terms “knowing” and “knowingly” are defined under the FCA as “a person, with respect to information—(1) has actual knowledge of the information; (2) acts in deliberate ignorance of the truth or falsity of the information; or (3) acts in reckless disregard of the truth or falsity of the information.” Moreover, the FCA does not require “proof of specific intent to defraud.” 31 U.S.C. § 3729(b).
Therefore, the FCA allows a private individual having information regarding a false or fraudulent claim against the Government to bring an action for himself, as “relator,” on behalf of the Government and to share in the Government’s recovery. The legislative intent behind sharing in the Government’s recovery was to entice private individuals to come forward with information.
However, as will be discussed in Part 3 of this series, there are certain procedural requirements with which a qui tam relator must comply. Filing a qui tam action is a complex and detailed process. It is important to choose an attorney who understands these requirements.